Posted: June 17, 2016
Publication: Total Magazine Article 2008
Let me ask you a question. How many times on the road or circuit have you attempted to drive through a corner describing the correct line, but only turning the steering wheel once?
Turning the wheel at the entry to the corner and holding the wheel on the described radius through the turn, unwinding the steering as the road straightens, avoiding any unnecessary input and remaining in the correct position on the road? Sounds difficult? Never thought about it? Or perhaps you think it`s not possible...
Organised track days dissect the corners for you with cones, highlighting the key components of the corner. They are invaluable for safe fast laps and provide a referenced mental picture of the corner, aiding circuit knowledge and safety. Once you have learnt the circuit, you quickly realise that the cones are a guide only and may not be in the perfect place for that perfect lap. The range and differential in the type of vehicles using the circuit on a track day, make it very difficult for the organisers to place the cones in the correct place for us all - I could be in an Evo/Subaru/Nissan, you could be in a Radical.
We can dissect the corner in the respected way: Entry; Apex Clipping Point; and Exit, but CAT Driver Training has a secret weapon to simplify the process: “Single Input Steering”. Approach the corner simply looking to use all of the road and find the straightest line through the turn. Aim to enter the turn steering without correction for the duration of the corner. Aiming to use every last piece of the circuit (not the kerbs), will reduce the steering input - minimised steering gives maximum speed. If you think of unwanted steering angle as BRAKING it will add a new dimension of discipline to every corner.
Now let’s marry minimal steering input to “Single Input Steering”. Why am I so concerned with reducing unnecessary adjustment of the steering wheel through a corner? To answer that question we cannot ignore the dynamic workings of the vehicle underneath us. On circuit the springs and dampers are working overtime to keep the tyre on and perpendicular to the road. As a driver, you are responsible for weight transfer through the platform of the vehicle, in all scenarios.
When braking, cornering and accelerating, or thinking of it more dynamically, dive, roll and pitch, unnecessary adjustment transfers weight through the platform and into the tyre. If you are cornering at the threshold of grip, the unnecessary adjustment will reduce the maximum grip the tyre can offer - you will never reach true grip limit. Why? Because a tyre has an optimum weight it can support before it rolls onto the side wall and starts to slide.
There is another piece of the jigsaw to consider: Slip Angle. Turn your steering wheel for a corner and consider what the tyres are doing on the rim. They are flexing on the wheel rim as the cornering forces build up in the tyre. By design, through a turn there is an angular difference between the direction the tyre (contact Patch) is pointing and the direction the wheel is pointing.
A tyre has an optimum slip angle. Flex the tyre on the rim too far by turning into a corner too aggressively, or simply entering a corner too fast, and your slip angle becomes a slide angle - the tyre cannot support the weight of the cornering vehicle, the tyre rolls off of the contact patch. Now running on the side wall you’re losing grip. What follows will depend on how far you have flexed the tyre away from its designed profile. You could be faced with a gentle reduction in grip, to a full blown spin and a trip to the gravel trap. Remember! If your air bags are still connected, should you be unfortunate and hit something hard, don’t have you your hands across the wheel at the point of impact. You wouldn’t be the first driver to go home with a broken nose as well as a broken car.
Let’s recap minimal steering input. Take away any small unnecessary inputs and work every corner precisely. Look for the straightest line through every corner. Linking Turn In, Apex, Clipping & Exit points with one fluid linear radius will give you minimal weight transfer, the opportunity to achieve a constant slip angle and the ecstatic unparalleled excitement of finding true steady state grip limit. Remember when driving on the road or track “less is always more” - let the car do all of the hard work not the driver.
Experience tells me it is almost impossible to single input steer if you are not looking all of the way through the corner with a very long focal point. Your steering will always follow your eyes. Look at the barrier or gravel trap and that is where you will steer! If you feel nervous of a particular corner, ignore the looming hardware and keep your eyes fully focused up the road on the tarmac.
Safe Motoring until next time…. Grip limit signals and dissecting the corner.
"Cat Driver Training - September 2021 If you want to understand and explore the dynamics of your car then this is the team to help you whatever your level of knowledge. Personally I learnt many things about the dynamics and capabilities of the Porsche 911. Things that had not been explained to me in such detail even on Porsche factory tours and track events. The level of instruction out on the handing circuits and tracks is of the highest standard and brings to life the theory discussed in the classroom. My driving skills were taken to the next level and I will continue to work with CAT to further develop them. The facilities available at Millbrook are outstanding and it is a privilege to be able to access them via CAT Driver Training."
"Do you think you know it all? Well set up, well briefed and spendidly delivered. This training covered technical aspects of driving skills and then followed (and backed) those up with practical exercises. The learning was continuous and developmental. Whether it was simply understanding what your car could do (or what you might be able to make it do) or what you could do, there was a whole range of skills, techniques and aids that would enhance anyone's understanding of motoring. Whether it was how ABS could be triggered (or not), understeer/oversteer, trial braking, dynamic forces, on-limit driving; you name it, this course covered it. Delivered by people who clearly knew what they were talking about, but in a friendly, clear and accommodating style. I learned something from every session."
"The best decision I ever made! I have trained with CAT Driver Training twice now & looking forward to coming back in the future. I trust in their expertise & there is always something new to learn, a habit to be explored & an exhilarating experience that pushes me to my limit & builds confidence in myself & the car. The knowledge, experience, understanding, patience, compassion & professionalism of the team are just some of the qualities that make them unique & I highly recommend them."
"Performance Driver Track Day Course I participated in the course arranged by Porsche Club GB and very happy to give 5 stars all round. The team has put a huge amount of thought and effort into making the facilities and training Covid-secure, which is indicative of their professionalism. I found the whole day both fascinating and a lot of fun, in briefings, on the various driving segments, and chatting with the team and other participants. I was genuinely in awe of how much Colin moved my theoretical and practical driving on, and what he got me to get the car to do in the space of one day - always building confidence, encouraging me to explore my limits, while not pushing me beyond them. Can't wait to return!"
"I have had a reasonable degree of driving training over the years as am ex police officer and advanced police driver. I took the performance driver driver training to learn about track driving, and found it excellent. My instructor was Paul who was fantastic. The training built up during the day and I learnt so much about the capabilities of my own car and although I was nervous about using my own car realised afterwards it was the best thing for me to do. The instruction was extremely informative from an engineering perspective coupled with driving, friendly and tailored to your individual needs and abilities. At no time was I encouraged or pushed to do anything I wasn’t comfortable with. It was extremely professional throughout. I would thoroughly recommend this to anyone whatever your standard of driving."
"Truly exceptional In my experience, driving instruction has generally consisted of being repeatedly told that you are 'doing it wrong' accordingly to some unknown standard or principle that you had hoped to learn about by taking said instruction. Then there is Colin. It is not that common to find an individual who genuinely understands both people and engineering. It is incredibly rare to find one who can actively apply both to deliver a sustained behavioural change. Colin adapts his teaching style to the way you learn. For me, he lead with the WHY of the learning point, grounded in physics and engineering. We'd then put it in to practice, often doing several variants of an excercise to explore how the car reacts to differing inputs, providing valuable context for what good feels like and reinforcing the learning point. Each point built on the previous ones, layering up and coming together in to a whole, one far greater than the sum of it's parts. Subtle changes to huge effect. I was concerned on the day that the learnings would rapidly fade, but I have found that because Colin has taught me an understanding the lessons have persisted, even if I do still need some more practice (48 laps of the Silverstone GP circuit last Thursday definitely helped!). Add to this the fact that Colin is great company and an absolute pleasure to spend time with, and you have one of the most positive learning experiences I've ever known. Truly exceptional. I could not recommend more highly. Thank you!"
"Superb day with calm knowledgable and professional guidance from Paul. Thank you Paul. The course is so well structured consistently building ability and knowledge in complete safety. I fully recommend anyone wishing to increase their knowledge, confidence and experience to attend."
"Far better than any track day you can imagine! There is a massive difference between a typical driver experience or track day events and CAT driver training. The main difference is that you drive your own car to the full extent of it's capabilities, and your own, while being given expert one to one tuition by brilliant trainers Colin and Paul, who come from a Motorsport and auto engineering background. Their combined domain knowledge of engineering and competitive Motorsport allows them to explain the physics of why the car behaves as it does and how you can exploit the cars characteristics for maximum performance., in a safe fun environment. The frankly brilliant experience on the track is matched by the quality hospitality hosted by Jo, and classroom training, which prepares you for what you will experience on the next stage. These stages include such delights as the ring, where you will drive with no hands on the wheel at 100MPH, providing you with a clear understanding of the fact the car finds its own balance , and my personal favourite the alpine stage, with hairpins a plenty and 'character building' drops and rock faces. I have to admit to being slightly 'corner shy' before the training, however after some brilliant coaching from Collin urging me to 'stay on the gas, stay on the gas!' I am now far more confident and safe in the twisty stuff!"
"I don’t want to make this review too long and detailed, so I think the best way to summarise it is this: I think I possibly learnt more in one day that I’ve ever learnt before and the skills are relevant to all driving and can be practised daily. On the way home, I drove the ‘long way’ just to practise and feel the difference in the attitude of the car. I used to do this now and again because there are a few good straights and it’s nice to give the car a ‘blast’. This time, I drove that way home because I wanted to drive round the corners properly."
"Extremely professional driver training. Period. I wanted a course that would deliver a very high level of training, in an organised and professional manner. The course exceeded my expectations in every way, I wish I had started working with CAT Driver training years ago. There is no doubt that if you are looking for absolute top level training, there isn't anywhere else to look. Somehow they manage to follow a very tried and tested course structure, yet it is tailored all the way along to meet your requirements and current skill set. very impressive. I cannot rate this company highly enough. I have more dates booked already."
"Very structured training Paul was very clear and methodical in his coaching. The training technique was built up in various sections during the day and all came together like a jigsaw puzzle in the end for a great result."
"It's hard not to be enthusiastic about the lasting impact CAT Driver Training will have on your approach to driving. I spent a day with Paul exploring the potential of my new vehicle. The coaching is clear, methodical and structured to allow you to go on learning for a full day without overload. The training venue is superb and quiet enough (on the day I attended) to allow uninterrupted driving. Brilliant admin team too. Absolutely 5 Star!"
"Everything you read about these people is true and i cannot really add anything apart from clicking these five stars and to say they are truly incredibly knowledgeable, professional and nice. I did the Performance Driver Track day in my amazing six-month-old 911 GTS 4 and I now know so much more about my car and myself. I was in a group of six people all with different driving skill levels from the complete novice (me) to regular track day enthusiasts and the day was a journey of discovery for everyone. I am so pleased to have done it."
"First class performance car training day. Many thanks to Paul & your great team for a really enjoyable training day at Millbrook on Friday. I learnt a lot more about the capabilities of my F430 and found many new limits! The attention to detail in the delivery of the training was exceptional. I would recommend this to anyone with a performance car who wants to fully understand and enjoy their vehicle."
"An amazing day. If you drive you should go to CAT. If you have a performance car you MUST go to CAT. A day with CAT will transform your driving, you it be safer on the road in any situation and it will be the biggest performance upgrade your car will ever get. I learned so much in one day without any pressure, effort or stress. Colin's coaching is world class, he makes it simple / interesting to understand and easy to absorb / remember. The whole day and and everything leading up to it are well organised by the team. They REALLY care that you have a great day and TOTALLY deliver. You owe it to yourself to go."
"Absolutely Brilliant! The best advice I can give: believe every one of the glowing reviews on CAT! I approached CAT because I wanted to feel more comfortable with my newly-purchased BMW, the first rear-wheel drive car to be used for every-day driving after decades of FWD cars. I wanted to find out what the car's capabilities are, what it would feel like in extreme conditions, understand what it was telling me at the limits and, generally to get advice on my own technique. I wasn't a novice, having done plenty of track days and laps of the Nordschleife but I just knew that there's always plenty more to learn... A day's Performance Driver session met every one of my targets, and then more! Paul was a patient, logical and technical instructor who took time to explain what would happen in each manoeuvre and then fully debriefed that stage so that I not only knew what the car was doing but also understood what effect on the car my own actions were having. The proof of the pudding was in the final stage - setting consistent timed laps of the handling circuit. I'd worried a little about this all day as I'd have described my driving as enthusiastic but perhaps not consistent. The results were close to unbelievable to me! By remembering all that Paul had demonstrated and explained to me I surpassed my wildest dreams. Fantastic! As a result of this day, I now have more belief in my ability to read what my car's saying to me which brings confidence and relaxation. The car and I are now a team, rather than me just sitting there making it go down the road. I can highly recommend the whole CAT experience. Professional, friendly, patient, technical when required and not afraid to challenge when necessary. Oh, and the lunch is good too! I wish I could afford to go back every month..."
"Achieve your driving goals here! Can't ask for more than that! The entire experience was a positive and pleasant one. Everyone I met at CAT Driver Training contributed positively to the day, regardless of the role, so thank you to Jo, Lynne and of course, Colin! CAT have existing programmes for teaching anyone the fundamentals and advanced techniques of how to drive fast, but Colin can identify really quickly what you can and cannot do, and is quick to understand how to best use your time. I went in with my own unique set of requirements which slightly 'broke' the programme, but it was no problem at all and the most impressive thing was that I achieved my goals by the end of the day! I wanted to understand my car, be able to find and drive at the grip limit, and also understand how to be a faster and better driver. A lot to fit into a day, but Colin managed it in the most efficient way possible, and we achieved them all! Colin has great insights into vehicle dynamics, as well as the human machine behind the wheel. He understands why we sometimes don't function as optimally as we would like! His ability to listen to you, translate your input and isolate what is not working with your current technique helps focus the day on exactly what needs attention. This focus, along with Colin's 'feeling' of how the package of car and driver is behaving, makes him uniquely qualified to provide great direction and input to help you become the best driver possible. A lot of people talk about it, but very few can translate the inputs to a specific process for you to follow as a driver. The process is all about starting with foundations and building on them. It doesn't always seem to make sense, but trust the system - it all comes together in the end! The time is not cheap, but it will help you achieve your goals, so how do you put a price on that!? Thank you CAT Driver Training!!
"Best In Class Driver Training The training provided by Colin at CAT Driver training is superb. I am lucky enough to attended training days with Porsche, Lotus, Aston Martin and the day with a Colin at Millbrook has topped them all being informative, challenging, practical and above all delivered by a true Petrol Head. Thanks again and I will be back with the 911."
"Reminding how to drive fast A day with Colin on a 'One to One' basis is almost essential for anyone who lives on a small rock in the middle of the English Channel or lives in a city. We don't drive fast and don't get the opportunity to drive fast unless we are on a track. Colin spent the day reminding me how much fun it was to have 'fast feet' and to make the Tyres 'squeak' as they reach the sticky limit. I think I lost about 7kg in weight during the day as I was worked so hard but oh what a day. Thoroughly recommended to anyone who had a petrol head. Best bit was the 'Alpine Loop' at the end of the day. Full gas on the exit with all four squeaking. 👍😃"
"Excellent! Colin, Jo, Paul and the team are amazing, professional and have a unique ability to cover all areas of driving properly. My driving capability has been enhanced beyond measure. I highly recommend them and the CAT Advanced Driving Academy Programme. During the course it became clear to me that CAT Driving are one of the very few on the planet with such experience and capability. They have designed a brilliant dedicated package focused on working with you and delivered with an attentive caring personal touch."
"Paul was amazing: awesome teacher with a great brain. Made me realize my Mustang has actually way more grip and better and better handling than I thought. Top notch facilities in Millbrook. Totally worth it."